Subelectronic Particles
According to Einstein, electromagnetic (EM) waves
represent a flux of quanta of pure energy in the form of massless particles
(called in 1923 by Compton photons), moving with the speed of light c.
How could such a concept of mysterious massless particles appear?
Introducing for the first time the notion of small portions of energy
rushing in empty space with the speed of light, Einstein was forced to accept
their rest mass m_{0} to be equal to zero, otherwise their
relativistic mass m will turn out to be equal to infinity according to
the equation
.
And he had understood that it is unconditionally inadmissible. His quanta of
energy have no size in the space being the mathematical formless objects.
It transgresses the bounds of science. Indeed, the relativistic relation for
lengths of objects, moving along the xaxis, is determined by the
equality
.
Einstein interpreted the length
as the length in the state of rest, and the length
 as the length in the state of motion. Because of this, the length of an object
moving with the speed c in the direction of motion is assumed to be equal
to zero. As a result of such an interpretation, a photon is transformed into a
figleaf of a zero thickness, which, moreover, moves in an allegedly empty space
and has the wave properties, looking like (in some sense) an energetic
snakesinusoid. This model of the wave motion is deeply naïve and speculative.
Obviously, the concept of mystic photons with unusual properties, nonsensical to
real essences, is a result of disregarding of common sense for the sake of
fitting such a concept to the theory of relativity and nothing else.
One should realize that a
wave motion
is the mass process having the binary character. It means that the wave
process of any subspace of the Universe runs simultaneously at the two levels:
the level of basis and the level of superstructure. The basis
level embraces an interaction of particles between themselves in a subspace.
This interaction gives rise to its own superstructure – the wave motion of longitudinaltransverse structure –
the dynamic collective interaction of particles with the subspace. Here, the
basis is the cause and superstructure is the effect.
Thus, any wave process is a contradictory complex of basis and
superstructure, of cause and effect.
For example, an interaction of atoms between themselves in a string
(fixed from both ends) is a process occurring at the level of basis of
the string. A disturbance of the equilibrium interaction (caused by an external
influence) leads to the expansion of this disturbance along a string, which has
the wave character. At that the oscillatory motion with the speed
of every atom of the mass m of the string (in the wave of the expansion)
and the wavelength itself
represent the collective parameters of the wave motion related to the level of
superstructure.
The energy of the wave quantum of superstructure
generates, at the level of basis, the equal energy of the wave quantum of
basis
,
where c is the basis speed. For instance, the wave motion of a
string with the frequency of the fundamental tone
and wavelength
generates in a surrounding air an acoustic wave of the same frequency, but with
the basis (sound) speed in air c and the wavelength
different from
:
.
The similar situation takes place under disturbance of the hydrogen atom, where
is the orbital (oscillatory) speed of the electron – superstructure of Hatom.
The basis speed, equal to the speed of light c, is the speed of
interaction (strictly speaking, of exchange of matterspacetime) of the
longitudinal (radial) wave field of the proton with the transversal
(cylindrical) wave field of the electron at the
fundamental frequency of exchange of the subatomic level
.
At the same time, c is the basis speed of interaction of any particles of
the subatomic level, including elementary particles oscillating (during the wave
process) in an outer space with a variable speed of superstructure
dependent on the intensity of their disturbance.
During the motion in a
transient process,
the electron in the hydrogen atom causes the wave perturbation. The myriad of
particles of the subelectronic level is involved in this process. They have
nothing in common with the mathematical pointsphotons of zero rest mass and
zero rest energy. It is a huge world of particlessatellites of electrons. For
them, Earth is in the highest degree the “rarefied” spherical space. These
particles called neutrino pierce the Earth just freely as asteroids pierce the
space of the solar system and galaxies. Just their directed motion, fluxes,
called “magnetic field” surrounds a conductor with a current, a bar magnet, our
Earth and fills up interplanetary, interstellar, and intergalactic spaces. It is
the cylindrical fieldspace of the subelectronic level.
Taking into account above, let us consider the wave propagation of EM
radiation in outer space of Cosmos filled with subelectronic particles. We will
rest on the concept that the propagation of EM waves (including light) proceeds
like propagation of any material waves, for example, sound waves in an ideal
gas. According to the theory of matterspacetime described in the book “Atomic
Structure of MatterSpace” (2001), the oscillatorywave (or,
in other words, superstructurebasis) energy density of a medium is equal to
,
where
is the density of a medium,
is the oscillatory speed of particles (superimposed onto the speed of their incessant
random motion and a drift) involved in the wave process of energy transfer of a
disturbance, c is the phase speed of wave propagation of the disturbance
in the medium.
As was mentioned in the previous summary, the
finestructure constant
,
where
is the speed of the electron on the Bohr first orbit, reflects the scale
correlation of basis and superstructure of wave fieldsspaces of objects in
the Universe, i.e., conjugate oscillatorywave processes at different
levels of the Universe. In particular, this constant shows the maximal possible
oscillatory speed of coupled particles  a lighter particle of superstructure
(electron) with respect to the basis speed of its interaction (binding) with the
heavier conjugate basis particle (proton) at equilibrium,
.
We have talked about this in the aforementioned
summary where it was shown that the fundamental dynamic
parameters of microworld, the Planck constant h and the finestructure
constant
,
characterize some of the dynamic parameters of man as well – his perception of
sound.
Let us suppose that the same relation for both speeds, oscillatory and
wave, is valid for a huge world of particles of the subelectron level filling
the interstellar and intergalactic spaces. As was assumed above, these particles
are responsible for the transfer of EM (including light) energy. Then, their
maximal oscillatorywave energy density
will be equal to the value
,
where
is the density of the space consistent of these particles,
is the finestructure constant. Note in this connection that the space of these
particles is one of the infinite set of spaces of the Universe embedded in each
other.
The energy of quanta of EM radiation, transmitted through the space,
depends on the frequency of radiation
and is defined by the equation
,
where
is the Planck constant. Obviously, for the transfer of the same energy of the
same frequency by the particles behaving like particles of an ideal gas, the
Planck’s action h has to be equal to the oscillatorywave action
of the particles. In this expression
is the field mass related with the wave
.
This mass differs from the equivalent mass estimated from the
dynamic energy
.
The mass
is ranged within the values
defined by the frequency band of EM spectrum. Obviously, in the case when
,
the mass
is approximately 137 times as much the mass m of particles, whose dynamic
energy at the subatomic level is equal to mc^{2}. Thus, because
the energy of transmitted quanta
,
equal to the oscillatory wave energy
, is compared to the energy mc^{2} (as it takes place at the estimation of the equivalent mass of photons),
we have under the condition
the field mass
.
Let us to come to this relation the other way.
In wave processes, the change of the extension of the wave element of
space (along the wavebeam) takes place. Simultaneously, the change of the field
mass,
,
related with the element of space l, occurs. The following relation
approximately expresses this peculiarity:
.
The is the local
change, therefore,
.
But
,
hence, we obtain
,
where a is the
amplitude of axial displacement. Hence, the axial element of the mass
,
say “thickening” (we will denote it as
),
along the wavebeam of basis is
.
In the limiting case, when
is equal to c, the field mass
and the mass
are
equal,
.
One should regard the wave “thickening”
as
the wave quasiparticle. If its mass turns out to be equal to the electron mass,
this particle can be regarded as a quasielectron, or a wave electron,
participating only in the wave process of radiation and absorption. Thus, for
the wave
,
the following relation is valid:
and
.
If
is the Bohr velocity, corresponding to the amplitude equal to the Bohr radius,
,
and
is
the quasielectron, then, the mass of radiation (field mass)
of the unit wave quantum (quantum of mass of radiation)
is
.
Following contemporary physics, the EM spectrum is within the frequencies from
to
.
As was shown in the paper "Dynamic model of
elementary particles and the nature of mass and ‘electric’
charge" (published in "Revista Ciencias Exatas e Naturais", Vol. 3,
No 2, 2001 (157170)), the fundamental frequency of the subatomic level is equal
to
(see the summary on E=m_{0}c^{2}).
It is the frequency of the socalled "electrostatic field". This frequency, unrecordable on the human time scale, is
also the carrying frequency of EM waves and, accordingly, it is the ultimate
frequency of the EM spectrum. Therefore, all observed (detected) electromagnetic
waves are just the waves of the frequency modulation of this carrying
exafrequency
.
The fundamental wave radius, corresponding to the fundamental frequency, is
.
It is equal to onehalf of mean value of the interatomic distance in crystals.
This fact shows that the frequency of the field of interaction between atoms in
substance is equal to the fundamental carrying frequency of the subatomic level
.
Accordingly, for the ultimate value
of the EM band of frequencies, we have the following ultimate value of the field
mass (under the condition
):
where
is the electron mass. As follows from the literature, the same mass is ascribed
to a limiting mass of muon neutrino,
.
The corresponding ultimate quantum of mass of particles of the EM band
(equivalent to energy
)
is
.
The waves of near infrared, visible, and near ultraviolet relate to the
frequency band of
.
For the value near
,
we arrive at the following field mass
which is multiple to the characteristic value of the metrological spectrum.
Masses of all elementary particles take the definite discrete (quantum) values.
The mass m_{ph} is close to the mass of quanta of the visible
region, near ultraviolet, and multiple in average (in units of the electron
mass) to the fundamental measure in a quarter of the
fundamental period
,
,
like wellknown elementary particles. For instance, in average, gparticle
has the mass
,
quantum

,
mesons
have the mass
,
mesons

,
etc. (details are in the book “Atomic
Structure…” (2001)). The gparticle had no luck. It
was ascribed to the spectrum of elementary particles under different names:
muonic and electronic neutrino and antineutrino, etc. Note also that the
average mass of tau neutrino discovered later is estimated about 34 m_{e};
accordingly, gquantum can be regarded as consistent of two particles of
the mass
.
The relation between the masses of components of a hypothetic coupled
system m_{ph} particle  electron (m_{e})
almost coincides with the relation between the masses of a coupling of
electronproton (in the hydrogen atom), m_{e} and m_{p}:
,
,
where
.
Therefore, that is not unbelievable; particles of the mass m_{ph} can belong to
satellites of electrons. The quantum of mass of radiation of these particles
(equivalent to mc^{2})
is
.
This mass is close to the one of the estimated upper limits of the electron
neutrino mass,
.
For the frequency
, lying close to the mean value of the whole EM
spectrum, we obtain the following unit field mass
In this case, the quantum of mass (equivalent to energy mc^{2}) is
.
The chosen frequency
relates to the extremely high frequency (EHF) band of
millimeter waves. It is the region of the
cosmic microwave radiation. The mass
obtained and taken to estimations is also multiple (in units of the electron
mass) to a quarter of the fundamental measure. It practically coincides with one
of the plausible masses of neutrinos estimated roughly by the theorists around
.
Taking into account the multiplicity of elementary particles to the
aforementioned fundamental measure of
, the expectative value of neutrino mass
in units of the electron mass is about
.
The fluxes of particles of the discrete spectrum of masses, responsible for the
transfer of EM radiation, fill in and drift in cosmic space. Their density has
to depend on the carrying frequency of the EM spectrum, basis speed and
temperature. As is well known from the experiment, at the illumination of 50 lux
and
, the number of photons incident on a surface of 1
cm^{2} per one second is
.
Such an illumination is usual for reading without fatigue of eyes. In this case,
the concentration of photons is
. Assuming roughly that in outer space of Cosmos
an average concentration of particles of the subelectronic level, transmitted EM
energy of radiation, is of the same order of magnitude as the aforementioned
photons, we obtain for the particles of the mass
the following density
.
For the particles of the mass
, we have
.
The modulus of elasticity of such hypothetical fieldspaces is turned out to be
equal, respectively, to
and
.
However, the shortest possible wavelength of transfer of disturbance is
determined by the shortest possible average distance between oscillating
particles, recalling the particles of an ideal gas being in ceaseless random
motion. Therefore, it is possible to assume that the approximate average
distance between the subelectronic particles in Space should be equal rather to
the double value of the fundamental wave radius
of the subatomic level. In such
a case, for the volume occupied by one particle
,
the density of the fieldspace of particles, e.g., of the mass
in outer space of
Cosmos is
,
and the modulus of elasticity of such a fieldspace is turned out to be equal to
.
The modulus obtained exceeds the modulus of elasticity of air, but less than
that one of water. Below, for comparison with the above obtained parameters,
there are presented analogous estimated parameters of air (T=293 K,
P= 1 atm)
and sea water (T=288 K) used for the description of propagation of sound in
them. The temperature of the medium, consistent of particles of the mass
,
obviously, could be assumed to be equal to the temperature of the cosmic
background radiation equal to 2.7288 K.
Let us estimate the oscillatory speed of
particles assuming that they transmit
the quanta of energy of the wide band of EM spectrum of waves. With that, one
should not forget that the oscillatory and wave speeds are the speeds of motions
superimposed onto the ceaseless random motion and a drift of particles just as it takes
place in a gas. The oscillatorywave action h_{ow}, equal to Planck’s action
h, is
.
Hence, for
of the visible band (green light), corresponding to the maximal
sensitivity of human eye, the oscillatory speed of
particles must be equal to
,
i.e., it exceeds
and is close to the basis speed of subatomic level
c. For
,
related to the frequency
of the television band of EM waves, the oscillatory
speed is
. For
,
of the radio waves band, the oscillatory speed of
particles is
,
etc.
In conclusion. It is highly plausible that ghostly electron neutrinos are nothing
else than ponderable particles of the spectrum of masses of the subelectronic
level responsible for the transportation of energy of a huge EM band of
wavelengths. Most of the above described particles, including of the mass
,
rather represent a part of their whole spectrum. Judging by their masses, these
particles, identified with electron neutrinos, can be referred to as satellites
of electrons. The more so as the ultimate estimated mass of electron neutrinos,
known from the literature, does not exceed
. In a sense, like fish in an ocean
of water, we live in an ocean of neutrinos not feeling it. As concerns mystic
massless and formless mathematical pointsphotons, it is obvious, such objects
do not exist in nature; they relate to the realms of fancy.
The present author believes that the hypothesis put forward here could untie
many misconceptions of modern physics and astrophysics.
Learn more
About the new concept on the wave motion of elementary particles
October 27, 2002