of the famous formula
, there is nothing mentioned
about a reason of entering the speed of light c in this formula. Modern physics
is still unable to elucidate it as well. A new approach, in
the framework of Dynamic Model of Elementary Particles, apparently, reveals this
great mystery. Here is a summary of this approach.
Dynamic Model of Elementary
Let us imagine an elementary particle as a dynamic spherical
microobject of a complicated structure being in a dynamic equilibrium with
environment through the wave process of the definite frequency ω. Longitudinal oscillations of its wave shell in
the radial direction provide an interaction of the particle with other objects
and the ambient field of matter-space-time.
(dr and dS are the thickness and area of an element of volume
of the wave shell in a spherical field of exchange*: a particle -
ambient field of matter-space-time;
are powers of
exchange of the field with the element of shell of the particle,
two-dimensional density of exchange, or the pressure of the field of
exchange, is the
wave number corresponding to the fundamental frequency ω
of the field of exchange at the subatomic level)
The spherical wave shell bounds the space of an elementary particle,
separating it from the ambient wave field. It is the characteristic sphere.
The characteristic sphere restricts the main part of the microparticle
from its field part merging gradually with the ambient field of
The main part (core) is the basis of a microparticle,
whereas the field part represents its superstructure. Thus, the
basis space of a microparticle is restricted by the characteristic sphere,
beyond which there is the space of its superstructure. Such a dynamic
model interprets a microparticle as a particular discrete physical point of an
arbitrary level of matter-space-time, restricted by the characteristic sphere
and being in rest in the field-space.
The inner geometrical space (spherical volume) of an elementary
particle, restricted by its wave spherical shell, is the external world
of the particle. As the external world of the Universe, this space
(inside the spherical volume) naturally can be called the Anti-Universe. In this
sense, the World (Being and Non-Being) is represented here through the Universe
and Anti-Universe. Obviously, the spaces of the Universe and Anti-Universe are
closed on each other. (Most probably, the main essence of life, its mystery, is
hidden in the Anti-Universe)
The very important results have been obtained in the framework of this
model. We will enumerate them; but before that, let us remind the readers the
sad fact that since then the famous formula
E = m0c2
was obtained in Einstein's manipulation of the fictitious
mathematical empty spaces, physics has no answer to the principal question:
What is the cause of the relationship,
which exists between the rest mass of a particle
m0 and the speed
of light c in the
formula where motion is out of the question?
Or, in other words,
Why does the
speed of light c play the fundamental role for
the internal energy of a particle
The Standard Model of Elementary Particles (SM) is unable
to explain it. By this reason, and not only, it is widely recognized, the SM "will
not be the final theory" and "any efforts should be undertaken to finds
hints for new physics"**. Experimentalists and theorists all over the world
are actively trying to find ways to move beyond the current particle physics
The SM was designed within the framework of Quantum Field Theory (QFT),
consistent both with Quantum Mechanics and the Special Theory of Relativity. But
QFT is not applied to General Relativity and, therefore, the SM cannot unify
fundamental interactions with gravity.
There are many promising ideas to replace SM. In the SM, particles are
considered to be points. In String Theory, a "string" is a single
fundamental building block for all particles. There are five different theories
of strings (three superstrings and two heterotic strings). There is also an
underlying theory called M-theory of which all string theories are only. M-theory considers that all the matter in the Universe consists of combinations of tiny membranes,
etc. However, many problems of the SM are still open.
One of the promising found "hints for new physics"** is the
Dynamic Model of Elementary
The advantage of the DM over SM and its correctness are reinforced by the fact
that from this model the naturally (and logically) originates the nature of mass
and charge of elementary particles and, hence, the nature of energy
E = m0c2, and other
unexplained (or unknown) earlier properties of objects and phenomena of nature.
As follows from the DM:
Mass is the measure of exchange*
Electric charge is the rate of exchange of matter-space-time,
or briefly, the rate of mass exchange (of the dimensionality g/s);
The speed of light c is
the basis speed of exchange of matter-space-time at the subatomic level.
E = m0c2
is the energy of wave
exchange of matter-space-time on the subatomic level
dynamic energy of the subatomic level.
From the DM it also
The fundamental law of central exchange (of the
Coulomb kind), which unifies the fundamental interactions, distinguished in
contemporary physics: electromagnetic, gravitational, and nuclear;
The fundamental (carrying) frequency of exchange of matter-space-time of the subatomic level
the frequency of the "electrostatic" field, which as we see is non-static;
The fundamental wave radius
the average atomic diameters and, hence, the average distances (lattice
parameters) in ordered material structures (crystals);
The fundamental gravitational frequency
is the absolute
unit density, G is the gravitational constant);
The fundamental gravitational radius of elementary particles
The existence of the gravitational frequency and the gravitational radius
of elementary particles shows the indissoluble bond of micro- and
mega-objects of the Universe in the unit complex of the Infinitely Small
and Infinitely Big.
Thus, there are potentially
enormous benefits in prospect from the further research within the DM.
* An existence and interactions of the particles are, in
essence, a continuous process of the wave exchange of matter-space
and motion-rest or, for brevity, exchange of matter-space-time.
The wider notion exchange (instead of interaction) is more correct
for such a model because it reflects behavior of elementary particles in their
dynamic equilibrium with the ambient field, at rest and motion, and interactions
with other objects (and particles themselves). In other words, the notion
exchange is more appropriate from the point of view of the physics of
the complex behavior of elementary particles, as the dynamic formations,
belonging to one of the interrelated levels of the multilevel Universe. This
notion was first introduced in the work "Alternative
Picture of the World" in 1995.
**A quotation from [NuPECC report devoted to "Impact and
Applications of Nuclear Science in Europe", 21-23 November, 2001 (France)].