George P. Shpenkov

Home ˇ CV ˇ Dialectical Physics ˇ Photos ˇ Contact ˇ Summary  
 The First Discovery of the 21st century : Two phenomena - "Relict" background radiation and the Lamb "shifts" - have the same source! (click lamb.asp)

Curriculum Vita

Brief Biography

Discovery & Inventions

Selected Publications
Memorandum RPhS


Dialectical Physics

Dialectical View
Early Papers
Periodic Table
Table of Isotopes
Isotopes of Carbon
Isotopes of Helium


Physical Metric

Table of Objective Dimensionalities
The Physical Metric


Atomic Structure

Anisotropy of Graphene
Carbon and Oxygen
Graphene Nanoribbons
Orbitals (Eng)
Orbitals (Rus)
Electron Spin (Rus)
Electron Spin (Eng)
Virtual Particles (Rus)
Virtual Particles (Eng)
Atomic Nucleus (Rus)
Atomic Nucleus (Eng)
Nature of Gravity (Rus)
Nature of Gravity (Eng)
Planetary Orbits (Rus)
Planetary Orbits (Eng)
Cosmic Background (Rus)
Cosmic Background (Eng)
Neutron Moments (Rus)
Neutron Moments (Eng)
Proton Moments (Rus)
Proton Moments (Eng)
Fundamental Period (Rus)
Fundamental Period (Eng)
Decimal Code (Rus)
Decimal Code (Eng)
Wave Model (Rus)
Wave Model (Eng)



EGF2016, Paris-France
23DGK-2015 Göttingen
ICNAAM-2012 Kos
GR19-2010 Mexico



Family and myself





Avogadro Constant

On the Boltzmann and Avogadro Constants, and the Temperature


George P. Shpenkov


Academy of Computer Science and Management,

Legionow 81, 43-300 Bielsko-Biala, Poland

March 24, 2008




A new insight into the notion of temperature, originated from the shell-nodal atomic model and the dynamic model of elementary particles, is considered in this paper. We show that a quantum of average energy of a nucleon at the level of the so-called meson frequency w0 is close, in value, to the Boltzmann constant kB. The number of such quanta defines the relative potential-kinetic nucleon energy of a system, equal in value to the absolute temperature. It means that the temperature, as the potential-kinetic energy, according to the revealed peculiarity, is the alternating wave magnitude and is negative for the relative potential energy and positive for the relative kinetic energy. The Boltzmann and Avogadro constants are expressed in new basis through the basic physical constants. Accordingly, we can regard the constants of the resulting values as fundamental.


PACS numbers: 03.40.Kf, 03.65.Ge, 11.90.+t, 12.10.-g, 12.90.+b, 14.20.Dh, 14.40.-n, 21.10.Dr, 21.60.-n, 32.10.-f, 44.90.+c

Key words: Absolute temperature, Negative temperature, Associated mass, Exchange charge, Boltzmann constant, Avogadro constant, Atomic structure, Elementary particles, Heat transfer


(Full text)




2.73 K Background
h and a Constants
Electron Spin
> Lamb shift
DM as against SM
Neutron Magnetic Moment
Proton Magnetic Moment
Avogadro Constant
Ampere's Law
Hall Effect
Cosmological Redshift
Imaginary Unit


Related Links

Mass-Charge Nature
Binumbers of Dialectics
Fundamental Period
Algebra of Dialectics
Coulomb's Law
Waves and Current



Lecture, Wroslaw-2013
On the Higgs boson
Lecture in WAT
Warsaw, 20.10.06
Gravitational Waves
Strong Interactions
Letter to Karshenboim



Dynamic Model
Electric constant e0


Lectures on
Dialectical Physics

Volume 1
Volume 2
Volume 3
Volume 4
Volume 5
Volume 6



Home CV Dialectical Physics Photos Contact Summary

2002-2015 George Shpenkov

Created by JanMax