On the Boltzmann and Avogadro
Constants, and the Temperature

**George P. Shpenkov**

*
Academy of Computer Science and Management,*

*
Legionow 81, 43-300 Bielsko-Biala,
Poland*

shpenkov@janmax.com

# March 24, 2008

## Abstract

A new insight into the notion of
temperature, originated from the shell-nodal atomic model and the dynamic model
of elementary particles, is considered in this paper. We show that a quantum of
average energy of a nucleon at the level of the so-called meson frequency w_{0} is
close, in value, to the Boltzmann constant* k*_{B}. The number of such quanta defines
the relative potential-kinetic nucleon energy of a system, equal in value to the
absolute temperature. It means that the temperature, as the potential-kinetic
energy, according to the revealed peculiarity, is the alternating wave magnitude
and is negative for the relative potential energy and positive for the relative
kinetic energy. The Boltzmann and Avogadro constants are expressed in new basis
through the basic physical constants. Accordingly, we can regard the constants
of the resulting values as fundamental.

*
PACS numbers*:
03.40.Kf, 03.65.Ge, 11.90.+t, 12.10.-g, 12.90.+b, 14.20.Dh, 14.40.-n, 21.10.Dr,
21.60.-n, 32.10.-f, 44.90.+c

*Key words*:
Absolute temperature, Negative temperature, Associated mass, Exchange charge,
Boltzmann constant, Avogadro constant, Atomic structure, Elementary particles,
Heat transfer

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